The Papillon is a cute and fluffy little Toy dog. He is typically lively, intelligent and easy to train, and adoring the company of humans. In many ways he is ideal as a companion dog but his long, silky coat will need daily grooming. Like all dogs he should be exercised frequently.
Inbreeding Coefficient - COI
(Should be as low as possible)
The UK Kennel Club breed average COI is 5.3% - see 'A Beginners Guide to COI'
Effective Population Size - EPS123.61
EPS is a measure of how many individuals are contributing genetically to a breed population. It is a measure of the size of the gene pool in a breed. Lower than 100 is considered critical by conservationists and below 50 brings a breed close to extinction. For more information see the Kennel Club article.
Health and Welfare Problems due to Conformation
(Body shape and physical characteristics)
- The Papillon’s overly fine bone structure makes fractures more common than a thicker boned dog of similar size.
- Dental issues due to the small mouth of this breed. Expensive dental treatment may be needed. Problems with overcrowded teeth and the resultant dental problems can cause much pain and discomfort for this type of dog.
Eye disease: Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA), (gradual loss of vision) (annual testing).
Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs) are now available for Hip Dysplasia and Elbow Dysplasia:
DNA Tests Available
- Von Willebrands Disease (vWD) Type 1
- Von Willebrands Disease (vWD) Type 3
- Progressive Retinal Atrophy (pap PRA I)
- Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA cord 1)
Unofficial (Breed Club) Schemes
Breed club scheme – Patella luxation (dislocated kneecap).
Ask the breeder to show you the certificates for the above tests/screening for both parents. If any of the above tests have not been considered necessary by the breeder (and there may be good reasons), ask her to explain why.
Other Diseases Reported
(For which there are currently no genetic or screening tests for sire or dam)
- Black hair folliculitis (infection of the skin follicles)
- Patellar luxation (dislocated knee joint)
- Heart disease: Mitral valve disease (degeneration of the mitral valve which may lead to heart failure)
- Micropapilla (smaller than normal optic disc)
- Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) (a neurologcal disease, causing hind limb weakness and head tremor, which rapidly deteriorates) in this breed almost always presents under 6 months and is fatal
Ask the breeder about the medical history of the parents, grandparents and great grandparents. Consider carefully whether to purchase a puppy if some of these or other diseases are in the family line.
Ask about the breeder’s policy in cases of serious genetic diseases occurring to your puppy in later life. Good breeders will request to be informed of such events in order to improve future breeding decisions. Some breeders will also agree to contribute towards medical costs or refund purchase price.
You are strongly advised to buy from a breeder who uses (or is prepared to use) the RSPCA / BVA AWF Puppy Contract and Puppy Information Pack (PIP): www.puppycontract.org.uk
You are also advised to buy from a breeder who follows the Dog Breeding Reform Group’s (DBRG) Standard for Dog Breeding: