The Pomeranian is a small Spitz-type dog, but definitely not a working variety. He is suitable as a companion dog but only for those who are prepared to spend time grooming his abundant coat. The soft undercoat and coarser outer coat will need daily grooming to keep clean and tangle free. His character is typically sweet tempered and affectionate but by no means docile. He will adapt to any type of home environment. He needs regular exercise every day.
Inbreeding Coefficient - COI
(Should be as low as possible)
The UK Kennel Club breed average COI is 5.6% - see 'A Beginners Guide to COI'
Effective Population Size - EPS99.07
EPS is a measure of how many individuals are contributing genetically to a breed population. It is a measure of the size of the gene pool in a breed. Lower than 100 is considered critical by conservationists and below 50 brings a breed close to extinction. For more information see the Kennel Club article.
Health and Welfare Problems due to Conformation
(Body shape and physical characteristics)
The thick coat will get matted if not groomed daily and kept clean. Warm weather could also be a problem for this dog as would an overheated house. Care should be taken not to allow him to over heat.
- Elbow dysplasia (abnormality of the elbow joint causing pain and disability: score should be ideally O:O)
- Chiari malformation/Syringomyelia (CMSM) (a painful neurological condition, resulting in fluid filled cavities within the spinal cord
Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs) are now available for Hip Dysplasia and Elbow Dysplasia:
DNA Tests Available
- Hyperuricosuria (HUU)
- Gallbladder Mucocele Formation
- Vitamin D Deficiency Type 2
Unofficial (Breed Club) Schemes
Ask the breeder to show you the certificates for the above tests/screening for both parents. If any of the above tests have not been considered necessary by the breeder (and there may be good reasons), ask her to explain why.
Other Diseases Reported
(For which there are currently no genetic or screening tests for sire or dam)
- Distal fractures of radius and ulna (causes acute and severe pain)
- Patellar luxation (kneecap slips out of place)
- Elbow dysplasia
- Atlantoaxial subluxation (instability of the cervical (neck) spine causing injury to the spinal cord and pain)
- Hydrocephalus (water on the brain)
- Tracheal collapse (causing coughing and breathing difficulties)
- Sick sinus syndrome (irregular heart rhythm in mid to old age – may cause weakness and fainting)
- Alopecia X (hair loss)
- Hypothyroidism (under activity of thyroid gland)
- Entropion (inward growing eyelashes which irritate the surface of the eye)
- Cryptorchism (failure of descent of one or both testicles couple with failure to mature)
- Hyperadrenocortism (Cushings Disease) (excessive corticosteroid secretion, causing thirst, excessive urination, hair loss)
Ask the breeder about the medical history of the parents, grandparents and great grandparents. Consider carefully whether to purchase a puppy if some of these or other diseases are in the family line.
Ask about the breeder’s policy in cases of serious genetic diseases occurring to your puppy in later life. Good breeders will request to be informed of such events in order to improve future breeding decisions. Some breeders will also agree to contribute towards medical costs or refund purchase price.
You are strongly advised to buy from a breeder who uses (or is prepared to use) the RSPCA / BVA AWF Puppy Contract and Puppy Information Pack (PIP): www.puppycontract.org.uk
You are also advised to buy from a breeder who follows the Dog Breeding Reform Group’s (DBRG) Standard for Dog Breeding: